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Basic FM Transmitter
Posted on Thursday, December 3, 2015   •   Category: FM Transmitters

Basic FM Transmitter

This basic RF oscillator circuit is easy to build and the components are not critical. Most of them can be found in your junk parts box. The circuit operated with 9V DC power supply. The L1 antenna coil can be made by close winding 8 to 10 turns of 22 gauge insulted magnetic wire around 1/4 inch form such as a pencil. You can experiment with the size of the coil and the number of turns to see how it affects the frequency and signal output of the oscillator. You should be able to pick up its signal with standard FM radio receiver. Signal In to any audio player through 0.1uF capacitor.




7 Watt FM Transmitter
Posted on Thursday, November 26, 2015   •   Category: FM Transmitters

7 Watt FM Transmitter

This 7 Watt FM Transmitter was originally a 200mW unit, without the universal power stage added. Together with the power amp 2SC1971 / MRF237 / NTE342 it then became a 7W unit. I used this transmitter with a half-wave open-end dipole in a vertical position 50 feet above ground. Together with about 70 feet of coax, this transmitter delivered great audio at a distance of 10 miles ... overall distance was 17 miles, but the audio signal was weak. I had no equipment, other than a watt meter to measure it's power and a digital FM tuner with a 5-LED Signal Strength Bargraph display to use as capturing the main oscillating frequency, which was right at 87.5 MHz. This circuit worked well for me, as I had experimented with it for nearly a year. Of course, one would be better off with more equipment than I have had to capture the main oscillating frequency. That was, by far, one of the hardest things to capture. It was thru trial and error, with the FM tuner, in finally finding out how to grab the right frequency. When I finally did get used to find out where my 'main' frequency was, the unit performed extremely well. Like I had said above, right at 10 miles, the unit was at its best giving clear audible audio into the speakers of my car. With the transmitting antenna at 50 feet above ground, I decided to see how well I could receive the transmitter signal from an overpass than is exactly 15 miles from the transmitter. When I got to the top of the overpass in my car, the audio signal came in as 'clear as a bell'. I now understand what is meant when one says FM signal travels best in a line of sight. Well, being on that overpass, if I had a strong telescope with me, I am sure I could see the 50 foot antenna in my oak tree. So with the overpass being right around 50 feet in height also, the transmitter surpassed my judgement call on its signal. I surrender this circuit to anyone who likes to experiment in things like this. Enjoy!




Simple FM Radio
Posted on Friday, October 9, 2015   •   Category: FM Radio / Receivers

Simple FM Radio

This is one of my favorite radio builds just because of how simple it is and how well it is able to pick up a lot of FM radio stations. I have browsed the world in search of a one transistor FM receiver. I have seen a couple but they were always attached to some sort of added device, such as another IC or another transistor for amplification in the receiver itself. Through my continued quest of searching for that too good to be true one transistor, I happened to run across a super-regenerative receiver, by Charles Kitchin, famous for his vast knowledge of regenerative designs. I printed out the schematic and made it. It turned out extremely well.




The Simplest FM Transmitter Ever Made
Posted on Friday, September 25, 2015   •   Category: FM Transmitters

The Simplest FM Transmitter Ever Made

This is the most simple and cheap FM transmitter you can ever find. This circuit is really cool. This runs at very low voltage, by a CR2025 3V battery, current consumption is also low.And the total size of this FM transmitter (including battery, excluding antenna) is less than that of a matchbox. The circuit has a central RF oscillator NPN transistor BF494 (substitute: BF199). A coil takes care of the output frequency. It consists of 36SWG wire 2.5 turns only in 5mm diameter ferrite rod. Keep the circuit as small as possible. Try to use no wires in the main functional area (transistor and coil). The input from the audio output of computer / PMP / mobile is given to the biased base of the transistor. The transistor gives a RF humming accordingly to the audio input, and the FM wave is spread by the external antenna. By using a standard TV antenna, the range of this transmitter can go up to 1KM radius, using small (15-20cm) Ariel, it can work up to around 50M range. This circuit is most suitable for miniature FM transmitter for use in computer, mobile etc to send music to home theater system without wires, and in homemade wireless walky-talkies.




Aircraft Transmission Receiver
Posted on Tuesday, August 25, 2015   •   Category: FM Radio / Receivers

Aircraft Transmission Receiver

This passive airband receiver is basically an amplified "crystal radio" designed to receive nearby aircraft transmissions on 121 - 133 MHz frequency. Useful for listening to the pilot transmissions. The input tuned cct 'L' is a 2 turn loop, with 30mm diameter measured at 0.15uH on my LC Meter which intercepts RF directly as opposed to an LC cct fed with external aerial. Tuning capacitor is a 30pF Philips Beehive trimmer, with a short length of plastic tube glued - as a tuning shaft. Capacitance runs from 28 to 7pF; which by formula gives a frequency range of 77 - 155MHz. Detector uses a biased 1N5711 (or similar) schottky diode with lowest forward-biassed voltage drop. The two 10M resistors bias the detector diode and the op-amp input near mid-rail for better detector efficiency. LM358 dual op-amp draws less than 1 ma so the battery drain is minimal. Insertion of earphones plug completes supply circuit and acts as an on/off switch. 9V battery fits neatly inside a 30mm x 130mm long PVC tube.




Simple AM Transmitter
Posted on Friday, August 21, 2015   •   Category: AM Radio

Simple AM Transmitter

There are not many AM transmitters that are easier to build than this one because the inductor is not tapped and has a single winding. There is no need to wind the inductor as it is a readily available RF choke. To make the circuit as small as possible, the conventional tuning capacitor has been dispensed with and fixed 220pF capacitors used instead. To tune it to a particular frequency, reduce one or both of the 220pF capacitors to raise the frequency or add capacitance in parallel to lower the frequency. Q1 is biased with a 1MO resistor to give a high input impedance and this allows the use of a crystal ear piece as a low cost microphone.




50W LM3886 Power Amplifier
Posted on Sunday, August 16, 2015   •   Category: Amplifiers

50W LM3886 Power Amplifier

This is a second revision of 50W LM3886 power amplifier that is used to power two bookshelf speakers. The sound produced by LM3886 chip is excellent so I decided to make another amplifier with it. The schematic is based on the schematic in the datasheet of the chip with minor changes. I removed the time delay capacitor connected to MUTE pin, because it's better to use separate DC protection schematic which has similar functionality. I made the output inductance L1 by winding 15 turns of enameled wire around the resistor R7. The diameter of the wire must be minimum 0.4mm. The whole was wrapped with heat shrink.




The Simplest FM Transmitter
Posted on Thursday, July 2, 2015   •   Category: FM Transmitters

The Simplest FM Transmitter

This is the most simple and cheap FM transmitter you can ever find. It's powered by CR2025 3V battery and current consumption is very low. The total size of this FM transmitter is less than that of a matchbox. The circuit has a central RF oscillator NPN transistor BF494. A coil takes care of the output frequency. The coil consists of 36SWG wire 2.5 turns in 5mm diameter ferrite rod. Keep the circuit as small as possible. By using a standard TV antenna, the range of this transmitter can go up to 1KM radius, using small 15-20cm wire, it can work up to around 50M range. This circuit is most suitable for miniature FM transmitter for use in computer, mobile etc to send music to home theater system without wires, and in homemade wireless walky-talkies.




1Hz to 1MHz XR2206 Function Generator
Posted on Sunday, June 28, 2015   •   Category: Frequency Wave Generators

1Hz to 1MHz XR2206 Function Generator

When i was using operational amplifiers at school lab i wanted a function generator at home to play with and work on circuits with Op Amps for better understanding. So i found on the internet a free function generator circuit which uses the IC XR-2206, i printed the PCB with my UV exposure box, i bought an enclosure box, i put everything inside and here is the result. The function generator can generate Square, TTL, Sine and Triangle waveforms from 1Hz to 1Mhz with Voltage regulation to Square Sine and Triangle waveforms.




Single Transistor VCO FM Transmitter
Posted on Thursday, May 28, 2015   •   Category: FM Transmitters

Single Transistor VCO FM Transmitter

This simple transmitter allows you to broadcast on FM radio band 87.5 - 108 MHz. It consists of a simple oscillator with silicon planar RF PNP transistor. Directly to the oscillator an antenna is connected. Due to the large amplitude of RF voltage is sufficient antenna length of about 5-10 cm. I used insulated 7cm long copper wire 1mm diameter. I eliminated the tuning capacitor, which is usual for most bugs and miniature transmitters, because this greatly complicates the tuning. From my own experience I know that if you get closer to such capacitor, the operating frequency is changed. That's why I chose to use the voltage tuning using the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). Instead of tuning capacitor the varicap (capacitance diode) is used, which changes its capacity by changing the reverse DC voltage. We can tune the operating frequency by changing the DC voltage using the trimmer P1. Varicap also provides frequency modulation.




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