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Ultrasonic Parking Assistant
Posted on Sunday, May 2, 2010   •   Category: Sensors


The basic theory behind the Parking Assistant is the Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) technique that is used for finding the distance and direction of a remote object underwater by transmitting sound waves and detecting reflections from it. First, a series of short ultrasonic pulses are transmitted using a transducer that changes voltage into sound waves. The transmitted pulse is reflected off an object, and the reflected wave is then received by another transducer that converts sound waves into voltage. The transmitted signal is also known as the ‘ping’ and the received signal is known as the ‘pong’. By counting the elapsed time between the ping and the pong, the distance between the device and an object can be easily calculated by multiplying the elapsed time with the speed of sound.


Dipole Antenna
Posted on Sunday, May 2, 2010   •   Category: Antennas


A simple dipole antenna can be used for improved FM broadcast signals. A dipole is basically a length of conductor (wire) split into two portions and signal is taken off at the split. It has a nominal 3 dB gain over an isotropic source and is directional, tending to favor signals broadside to the wire. The dipole is customarily an electrical half wavelength of wire at the frequency of interest, since the impedance under this condition is theoretically 72 ohms resistive and is a good match to a 50-75 ohm source or load generally presented by interfacing equipment such as receivers and transmitters designed to work into this range of impedances.


PIC Programmable Security System
Posted on Sunday, May 2, 2010   •   Category: PIC


This project uses the 12F675, it was chosen because of its low cost, A/D convertor and flash memory. This security system was designed to be used in a simple installation with just a hidden switch and not a keyboard. There are several features such as a battery monitor built into the code that also make it good for remote locations just run off a battery. Also all the delays and and other parameters are put into flash memory just by using a visual basic program and the serial port of a PC.


PLL FM Transmitter
Posted on Friday, April 30, 2010   •   Category: FM Transmitters


This new FM transmitter is very simple and doesn't need any RF tuning. First of all ,we have used an integrated VCO: The POS150 from Mini-circuits. This excellent RF circuit covers all the FM Band in a voltage range of 4V to 8V. The Kvco factor is very stable all over the FM band, consequently, we have applied the BF signal directly on the control voltage line coming from the PLL.


SAA1057 PLL Synthesized FM Transmitter
Posted on Friday, April 30, 2010   •   Category: FM Transmitters


The functioning of all is provided by a microcontroller from MICROCHIP "PIC16F84" which provides support for buttons, LCD 2 lines of 16 characters and the circuit pll "SAA1057. The VCO is entrusted to the transistor Q8 associate of his two diodes varicaps "BB109, a floor buffer Q7 separates the VHF signal obtained in two ways, on the one hand to Q9 to enslave loop phase and on the other hand to the Q5 and Q6 together which takes care to amplify the signal before attacking Q11, a "BFR96" which plays the role of HF switch via a timer "NE555" which receives information from the push and "SAA1057" ensuring HF cutoff in the event of failure of a locking or unlocking of the pll.


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