This fm rf amplifier uses 2SC1971 transistor to provide 5 watts of output. Output matching is adjusted via the two 40pF trimmer capacitors likewise also to the input. Note that the emitter of this transistor is directly grounded on the heat sink and should have a good thermal transfer. Driving power of 100 to 200mW can be applied in order to provide 5watts of output. Use a dummy load to tune this amplifier and remember that the transistor is biased in Class C, sufficient filtering should be followed after the output to minimize all the harmonics. Use ground plane construction technique in the PCB lay-out for best result, the more the grounding the better. If you have hard time finding the 10uH rf choke, try to wind 1/2 meter of 0.2mm enamel wire over a 33K 1/2 watt resistor and solder the coil ends to the legs of the resistor.
Posted on Monday, May 9, 2011 • Category: AVR
This is a very simple and easy to build programmer for Atmel microcontrollers from AVR family. The microcontrollers must support serial programming. This programmer is connected to a PC through the RS232 serial interface and can be used with the PonyProg or Avrdude software programmer. The programmer is quite simple and it is based on the SI-Prog from the author of PonyProg software. The Zener diodes D2, D3 with the resistors R2, R3 reduce the voltage from the ouput pins DTR, RTS on the serial port to around 5V which is suitable for microcontroller (MOSI, SCK). MISO signal is connected directly to the input CTS pin. The Zener diode D1 with the resistor R1 drive the NPN transistor T1, which controls RESET signal. The AVR microcontrollers are in reset when the signal has low level. The resistor R5 works as a pull-up for reset signal. The resistor R4 helps to close the transistor T1. The programmer has standard 10 pins header.
Posted on Monday, May 9, 2011 • Category: FM Transmitters
Presented here is a low-power FM transmitter with varactor diode tuning using surface-mount devices (SMD) that will be received with a standard FM radio. Soldering surface mounted devices is not so hard and actually is quite easy. There are many designs for small FM transmitters but they have some problems. First, you need an audio amplifier to get enough modulation. Second, the antenna is attached directly to the collector. Third, the coil L must be wound by hand and adjusted by stretching. It all ads with a weak signal that tends to drift in frequency. In contrast the transmitter schematic we present here eliminates some of those problems, using varactor diode for tuning and modulation, givin great sensitivity without an audio amplifier.
Posted on Sunday, May 8, 2011 • Category: FM Transmitters
This particular transmitter was later shipped up to VY1JA in the Yukon where, thanks to Jay's excellent antenna system, it was heard in Europe as well as in New Zealand during one of the Trans-Pacific Tests! Running 24 volts on the final will produce 100 watts into a 50 ohm load.
The transmitter utilizes a 4060 binary counter IC chip as both the crystal oscillator and frequency divider. I used a 2200 kHz crystal along with the 'divide-by' sixteen output to produce a signal at 137.5 kHz. Other combinations of crystal frequencies and 'divide-by' combinations may also be used since the 4060 features divided outputs for f/32 (pin 5) and f/64 (pin 4), among others. You may have a 4MHz crystal or an 8MHz crystal in your junk box that will put you in the band using these output pins.
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