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Long Range FM Transmitter
Posted on Friday, May 20, 2011   •   Category: FM Transmitters


The power output of many transmitter circuits are very low because no power amplifier stages are incorporated. The transmitter circuit described here has an extra RF power amplifier stage, after the oscillator stage, to raise the power output to 200-250 milliwatts. With a good matching 50-ohm ground plane antenna or multi-element Yagi antenna, this transmitter can provide reasonably good signal strength up to a distance of about 2 kilometres. The circuit built around transistor T1 (BF494) is a basic low-power variable-frequency VHF oscillator. A varicap diode circuit is included to change the frequency of the transmitter and to provide frequency modulation by audio signals. The output of the oscillator is about 50 milliwatts. Transistor T2 (2N3866) forms a VHF-class A power amplifier. It boosts the oscillator signal power four to five times. Thus, 200-250 milliwatts of power is generated at the collector of transistor T2.


Power LED Driver Circuit
Posted on Friday, May 20, 2011   •   Category: LED


Here's a really simple and inexpensive Power LED driver circuit. The circuit is a "constant current source", which means that it keeps the LED brightness constant no matter what power supply you use or surrounding environmental conditions you subject the LED's to. Or to put in another way: "this is better than using a resistor". It's more consistent, more efficient, and more flexible. It's ideal for High-power LED's especially, and can be used for any number and configuration of normal or high-power LED's with any type of power supply. As a simple project, i've built the driver circuit and connected it to a high-power LED and a power-brick, making a plug-in light. Power LED's are now around $3, so this is a very inexpensive project with many uses, and you can easily change it to use more LED's, batteries, etc.


Rotary Encoders
Posted on Friday, May 20, 2011   •   Category: PIC


Rotary encoders are very versatile input devices for microcontroller projects. They are like potentiometers expect of digital nature and unlike analogue potentiometers they never wear down. Rotary encoders not only provide 360 degrees of rotational freedom they also allow digital positioning information to be gained without the use of analogue to digital converters (ADCs). When using rotational encoders in projects it's possible to use the same encoder to represent a number of different input types, however this requires some form of feedback display to let the user know what information he is inputting and the 'position' of the encoder. The project is based around a 24 position rotary encoder, 16 LEDs arranged in a circle around the encoder, an A6276 16 LED serial driver IC and the PIC182550 microcontroller. A rotary encoder has 3 pins usually called A, B and C. The C pin (which is normally the centre pin) should be grounded and both A and B should be connected to the microcontroller with individual pull-up resistors on each input. In this project I used RB4 and RB5 on the PIC to connect the encoder; this has 2 advantages, firstly you can use the PORTB internal weak pull-up (which means you do not need external resistors) and also the PIC provides an 'interrupt-on-change' which can be used to monitor the encoder.


Electronic Thermometer using LM35
Posted on Friday, May 20, 2011   •   Category: Sensors


As shown in the schematic, temperature sensor of our electronic thermometer is LM35DZ. There are some kinds of LM35 IC, since it is cheap and easy to find we used LM35DZ in our project. It measures from 0C to 100C with a very linear output graph.For one degree change, it increases its output 10mV. On the Electronic Thermometer Schematic other hand, this circuit measures temperature values only between +10C and +39C. 2 numbered (middle) pin of the sensor is connected to the 5 numbered pins of LM3914 ICs. So every IC determines how many leds of bargraph will bright due to the analog signal received from the sensor. 2.2 microfarad tantal capacitors are connected between the 2 and 3 numbered pins of LM3914. Resistors in the circuit have %1 tolerance values.


LM386 Audio Amplifier
Posted on Thursday, May 19, 2011   •   Category: Amplifiers


This project shows how to build an Audio amplifier based on LM386 IC. The circuit is very simple and construction is easy on a breadboard. The LM386 IC is unique in that the gain can be modified by changing Resistor R2 and Capacitor C2. This configuration will give us a gain of 20. By removing R2 and connecting C2 across pins 1 and 8, we can increase the gain to 200. It is important to understand that increasing the gain does not increase the output power. The increased gain is only used when a very low input signal is to be amplified. In a previous article I discussed building audio amplifiers using discrete transistors. While it is possible to build good audio amplifiers from discrete transistors, they are no match for the many audio amp IC's available to us. IC's offer many advantages including high efficiency, high gain, low standby current, low component count, small size and ,of course, low cost. It is little wonder that audio amp IC's have replaced discrete transistors in most consumer electronic devices. While many experimenters have stayed away from these little black mysteries, I am going to uncover some of their secrets and demonstrate how easy they are to use.


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