In this tutorial you will learn how to build a simple serial 16x2 LCD display that is controlled via Arduino board by only two wires. The magic behind is done by the PCF8574 chip, an I/O expander that communicates with the micro-controller by using I2C protocol. The PCF8574 is a quick and easy solution to extending and adding output/input ports to Arduino. The chip connects to a standard I2C bus and adds an additional 8 output ports. A total of 8 LCD displays can be connected to the same two wire I2C bus with each board having a different address.
Posted on Friday, September 13, 2013 • Category: FM Transmitters
This FM transmitter is about the simplest and most basic FM transmitter it is possible to build and have a useful
transmitting range. It is surprisingly powerful despite its small component count and 3V operating voltage. It will
easily penetrate over three floors of an apartment building and go over 300 meters in the open air. The circuit
we use is based on a proven Australian design. It may be tuned anywhere in the FM band. Or it may be tuned
outside the commercial M band for greater privacy. (Of course this means you must modify your FM radio to
be able to receive the transmission or have a broad-band FM receiver.) The output power of this FM Tx is below
the legal limits of many countries (eg, USA and Australia). However, some countries may ban ALL wireless transmissions without a license. It is the responsibility of the builder to check the legal requirements for the operation of this circuit and to obey them.
Posted on Sunday, September 1, 2013 • Category: FM Transmitters
This portable FM Transmitter is easy to build. I have used a pair of BC548 transistors in this circuit. Although not strictly RF transistors, they still give good range. Transmitter is powered by 9V battery. The coil L1 consists of 7 turns on a quarter inch plastic former with a tuning slug. The tuning slug is adjusted to tune the transmitter. Actual range on my prototype tuned from 70MHz to around 120MHz. The aerial is a few inches of wire. Lengths of antenna wire should be 1 - 2 feet. The circuit is basically a radio frequency (RF) oscillator that operates around 70-120 MHz. Audio from audio jack is fed into the audio amplifier stage built around the first transistor. Output from the collector is fed into the base of the second transistor where it modulates the resonant frequency of the tank circuit by varying the junction capacitance of the transistor. Junction capacitance is a function of the potential difference applied to the base of the transistor. The tank circuit is connected in a Colpitts oscillator circuit.
Posted on Friday, July 19, 2013 • Category: FM Transmitters
This circuit provides an FM modulated signal with an output power of around 500mW. The input microphone pre-amp is built around a couple of 2N3904 transistors (Q1/Q2), and audio gain is limited by the 5k preset trim potentiometer. The oscillator is a colpitt stage, frequency of oscillation governed by the tank circuit made from two 5pF ceramic capacitors and the L2 inductor. The output stage operates as a 'Class D' amplifier, no direct bias is applied but the RF signal developed across the 3.9uH inductor is sufficient to drive this stage. The emitter resistor and 1k base resistor prevent instability and thermal runaway in this stage.
Posted on Sunday, May 19, 2013 • Category: FM Transmitters
This low power fm transmitter is designed to use an input from another sound source and transmits on the commercial FM band. This low power fm radio transmitter it is actually quite powerful.
The first stage is the oscillator, and is tuned with the variable capacitor. Select an unused frequency, and carefully adjust C3 until the background noise is removed.
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