Circuit-Zone.com - Electronic Projects
Posted on Monday, October 5, 2020 • Category: Power Supplies
Every electronics hobbyist needs at least one bench power supply in his house for tinkering with some weekend projects. This small power supply was built with an old 19V 3A laptop charger and buck-boost converter. Output voltage is continuously adjustable from 1.25V to 33V with up to 3A current. I have been using it for 3 weeks now and have realized that I am using it more than I thought I would.
Posted on Tuesday, June 2, 2020 • Category: FM Transmitters
This is a classic low-cost stereo FM transmitter that can send your signal to a FM receiver within 500 meter range. This transmitter uses the famous BA1404 all-in-one chip and operates from 5v power supply. Stereo channel separation is excellent. You can even use this as a front-end stereo RF signal generator for a large FM transmitter setup; by adding step-by-step RF amplifier. A few inch long copper wire can be soldered at the PCB to use as an antenna. The gang-condenser can be used to adjust frequency output. You can use this with your iPod or other audio source, inside your home or car on in an outdoor garden party or wherever you use.
Posted on Monday, May 4, 2020 • Category: Power Supplies
The LM350 is a tried and true 3A adjustable voltage regulator. It accepts an input voltage up to 35V and can deliver an output voltage between 1.25 and 33V. It is rugged beyond belief. Where fairly beefy step-down converters go up in smoke, the LM350 just takes a nap. And a nap is infinitely better than a plume of smoke. LM350 can also be used to limit current though that requires a separate LM350/LM317 in series with our voltage regulator.
Posted on Tuesday, April 14, 2020 • Category: FM Transmitters
This is 1 Watt FM amplifier with a good design that can be used to amplify RF signal of low power FM Transmitters in the 88 – 108 MHz band. It is very sensitive if you use good RF power amplifier transistors, trimmers and coils. It has a power amplification factor of 9 to 12 dB (9 to 15 times). At an input power of 0.1W the output will be 1W. You must choose T1 depending on applied voltage. If you have a 12V power supply then use transistors like: 2N4427, KT920A, KT934A, KT904, BLX65, 2SC1970, BLY87. At 18 to 24V power supply you must use transistors like: 2N3866, 2N3553, KT922A, BLY91, BLX92A. You may use 2N2219 at 12V but you will get maximum output power of 0.4W.
Posted on Monday, March 23, 2020 • Category: Amplifiers
This is 2x30W audio amplifier based on TDA2050 and LM1875. Amplifier PCB is suitable for both TDA2050 and LM1875 chips. Amplifier has all the necessary circuitry on board – power supply, speaker protection, delayed turn-on and fast turn-off. This is achieved using the convenient uPC1237 IC. TDA2050 and LM1875 are pin to pin compatible, the differences in their schematics are the values of a couple resistors and one capacitor. All this allows to make an universal circuit board, suitable for any of these two ICs.
Posted on Monday, March 2, 2020 • Category: FM Transmitters
RF projects are always special and I am confident that almost every engineer or enthusiast want to try building a RF project. Because of this we have put together a guide for building a super cool Walkie Talkie project. Walkie Talkie is a half duplex wireless communication device that is capable of establishing communication within short range. Half Duplex means only one user can speak or send his message at a time and communication cannot happen simultaneously. These devices are widely used by Security Personal, Industrial workers and so on. Of course it can make a great toy as well. This guide explains about a Walkie Talkie circuit that allows user to establish communication with another identical device within a range of 30m.
Posted on Tuesday, February 11, 2020 • Category: FM Transmitters
This is a good quality FM transmitter with 5km range and stable frequency brought by the modified oscillator, which is actually two oscillators built around Q2 and Q3 working at around 50MHz in anti-phase. The output is taken at the two collectors, where the frequencies of the two oscillators combine to form FM signal. This will provide a greater stability than normal single ended oscillators.
Posted on Sunday, February 2, 2020 • Category: FM Transmitters
Every laboratory needs a few critical devices, the most important of which is a power supply for powering the projects. But as demand grows and the projects get bigger a professional and adjustable power supply becomes a necessity. Here is an adjustable 50V/5A power supply with a variable output from 0V to 50V and adjustable current limiting from 0A to 5A. Most simple power supplies cant get the output to come down to exactly 0V or 0A. But in this circuit, the differential amplifiers have a negative power supply rail at (-3V), which can pull the output down to exactly zero.
Posted on Wednesday, January 22, 2020 • Category: FM Transmitters
This tiny FM transmitter can be used for varierty of applications such as monitoring, running your own radio station, etc. It can run on a voltage between 3 and 13 volts, draws 2-3 milliamps and has a theoretical output power of 3 milliamps although you could easily increase that by adding an RF amplifier.
Posted on Tuesday, January 7, 2020 • Category: FM Transmitters
The above wireless FM transmitter circuit is basically a small RF transmitter built around a single transistor. The circuit functions quite like a Colpitts oscillator incorporating a tank circuit for the generation of the required oscillations. The frequency mainly depends on the positioning and the values of the inductor, C1, C2 and C3. The coil turn distance and diameter may be manipulated a little for optimizing best response over the FM receiver. A small antenna in the form of a 3 inches wire may be attached at the shown point for making the “bug” highly responsive and generates distortion free signals.
Posted on Tuesday, December 10, 2019 • Category: FM Transmitters
If you want your tiny FM transmitter circuit to transmit music instead of spying or eavesdropping, you would probably find the following design interesting. The proposed FM transmitter will allow combining a stereo input simultaneously from the source so that the info contained inside both the channels get into the air for an optimal reception. The stability of the transmitter is improved by tapping the antenna from one top turn of the coil as shown in the above circuit.
Posted on Thursday, November 28, 2019 • Category: Motor Controllers
I published this schematic long ago in this article: Adjustable power supply and since then I made some improvements in PCB to make the board as small as possible. The idea is to be easy to attach the whole board to the heat sink which we want to monitor. The board is only 27mm x 27mm.
Posted on Monday, July 22, 2019 • Category: FM Transmitters
Learn to build your own mini FM transmitter. This fun project will show you how to build a mini broadcasting device that can transmit an audio signal up to a quarter mile to any FM receiver. It's easy to build and a good learning experience.
Posted on Tuesday, June 18, 2019 • Category: FM Transmitters
With this three stage transistor transmitter we can create and broadcast our mini radio station. We using S9018 transistor because it can handle very high frequencies, up to and including the VHF band. The first transistor on the left is a microphone audio amplifier for modulation. The gain can be adjusted with the potentiometer. The second transistor is the oscillator with a range of 80 to 103 MHz. The frequency can be changed with the upper coil 4T5 by pulling it slightly apart. The signal from the oscillator is very small, so that still needs to be amplified. The right most transistor is therefore an RF amplifier. This amplifies the signal from the oscillator to feed to the antenna. This transistor also immediately provides more stability, because the oscillator is not directly connected to the antenna.
Posted on Friday, June 14, 2019 • Category: Miscellaneous
This is a simple arduino project for a soil moisture sensor that will light up a LED at a certain moisture level. It uses Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller board. Two wires placed in the soil pot form a variable resistor, whose resistance varies depending on soil moisture. This variable resistor is connected in a voltage divider configuration, and Arduino collects a voltage proportional to resistance between the 2 wires.
Posted on Tuesday, June 4, 2019 • Category: FM Transmitters
With a matching antenna, the FM transmitter circuit shown here can transmit signals up to 2 kilometers. The transistor Q1 and Q2 forms a classic high sensitive preamplifier stage. The audio signal to be transmitted is coupled to the base of Q1 through capacitor C2. R1, R3, R4, R6, R5 and R9 are the biasing resistors for the preamplifier stage comprising of Q1 and Q2. Transistor Q3 performs the collective job of oscillator, mixer and final power amplifier. C9 and L1 forms the tank circuit which is essential for creating oscillations. Inductor L2 couples the FM signal to the antenna.
Posted on Monday, April 15, 2019 • Category: Headphone Amplifiers
This little tube amplifier is easy to build and will fit into a small metal Altoids box and can be carried around. It can be build with few common parts, that should be readily available. Amplifier works with many tubes like 6DJ8, ECC88, 6922, 12AT7, 12AX7, DAF96, 1T4, etc. It is powered by 12V supply and power consumption may be optimized to allow for small rechargeable battery packs.
Posted on Monday, February 25, 2019 • Category: Power Supplies
Presented here is a Laboratory Power Supply with 0-30V voltage and 0-3A current regulation. The schematic is pretty straightforward, it uses standard dual opamps such as TL082, TL062, TL072, NE5532, RC4558 and MC34072. The trimmer P3 adjusts the minimum current limit. P4 adjusts the maximum output voltage. After the final adjustment you may replace the trimmers with standard resistors. Power transistor dissipates quite a bit of heat and thus require a heatsink with optional fan. We may use two or tree transistors in parallel with emitter resistors to achieve more power. The transformer must be 100-120W with 27-30VAC output voltage.
Posted on Friday, February 1, 2019 • Category: FM Transmitters
This RF Amplifier designed for FM broadcast using a single 2SC1946 VHF Power Transistor. This 10-30W RF amplifier circuit provides an appropriate power boost with an input of 1-3 watt. Tower are 30 meters high will send signal surrounding air should be around 15 km.
Posted on Tuesday, January 22, 2019 • Category: FM Transmitters
That small circuit transmitter it is ideal for ready espionage for strip from radio Fm or receiver of VHF. Of course the recreational purpose also exists and the children will adore to have a transmitter that allows to speak for a radio FM placed at distant place and like this pretend the secret agent.
Posted on Wednesday, November 14, 2018 • Category: FM Transmitters
Powerful microtransmitter that can cover 3km range. To amplify the signal, a 2N3866A transistor is used that can provide up to 1W with gain > 10dB (24Volt). In our case the output power is about 100mW depending on the input power of 10mW and 9V battery power supply. The transistor Q1 must be mounted with a heatsink, the heatsink must have small dimensions (cylindrical) in order not to increase the parasitic capacitance. The trimmer R2 serves to adjust the bias of the transistor, start with the trimmer fully open and close by measuring the current absorbed by the 9V, in my case you get 100mW at the output with a current of 50mA not increase this value as you only increase the absorption by heating the transistor without increasing output power, because the input power is too low. Clearly the 9V battery will be able to provide 50mA only for a few hours, if necessary have greater autonomy should be used a larger battery, but it is no longer a bug but simply an FM transmitter.
Posted on Monday, October 29, 2018 • Category: FM Transmitters
This tiny 88-108Mhz FM transmitter bug measures just 10mm x 17mm in size and as you can see in the photos the biggest components are just the microphone and the battery. You can use a small microphone from an older cell phones, they are small in size and have an excellent sensitivity. For an effective power supply the 9V battery (Duracell) is excellent and allows several hours of battery life, but if you want to have a smaller size it is better to use 2 or 3 lithium cells like the 2032 used in PCs. The circuit works well from 3 to 12V, the maximum range is obtained with 12V and a piece of 40-60cm cable as an antenna.
Posted on Monday, September 10, 2018 • Category: FM Transmitters
In the mid 1970s large numbers of small FM transmitters, operating in the FM radio broadcast band (88-108 MHz) appeared on the market. It started with a self-build kit from the Danish manufacturer Jostykit that allowed everyone to build a small FM transmitter for a few Euros. Such transmitters generally consist of a single transistor oscillator with a simple resonance circuit, sometimes with an extra transistor that is used as audio pre-amplifier. The image shows a few examples that were available in European electronics shops in the mid 1970s. The transmitter shown here was built in the mid-1970s and measures just 1 x 2 cm. When properly built, it may have a range of several kilometers.
Posted on Wednesday, July 11, 2018 • Category: FM Transmitters
This is a simple, portable transmitter operating in the 88-108 MHz FM band. You may use it to run your own private neighborhood radio, just replacing the microphone capsule with a male audio jack connected to your pc or MP3 player. You may also use this as a spy transmitter, but be reasonable in that case. It's rated for 1 Watt, so you can listen to it even from a few kilometers, with a good antenna and not too much obstacles in the way.
Posted on Tuesday, June 19, 2018 • Category: Audio DAC
The following is a simple USB DAC Soundcard. It uses PCM2707 that incorporates USB interface to communicate with the computer and audio DAC all in one chip.
Posted on Saturday, May 26, 2018 • Category: Power Supplies
This project is a solution to power up most of devices or projects requiring dual (+/-) adjustable power supply. The circuit is based on LM317 positive and LM337 negative voltage regulators. LM317 series of adjustable 3 terminal regulator is capable of supplying in excess of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 30V DC output range, due to TO3 package of IC and large heat sink the power supply can handle maximum load current.
Posted on Wednesday, May 2, 2018 • Category: FM Transmitters
FM transmitter circuit projects are indeed quite popular among electronics hobbyists / students. But the frustrating part is most transmitters refuses to work at all, and secondly the internet is full of crappy transmitter circuits. Designing a stable FM transmitter circuit is rather a difficult job, many calculations are involved their. There are also some construction error and component value tolerance. Here you can find a reasonably stable and well tested transmitter that actually works.
Posted on Monday, March 19, 2018 • Category: FM Transmitters
This FM Transmitter is stable and has output power of 15-18 watts. You don't have to understand the precise working of the transmitter to build it. But some basic information won't harm. A transmitter alone is, as you probably know, is not enough to start your radio station. In the simplest form you need 4 things. First an input device such as an amplifier you also use with your home stereo. You need a regulated power supply. In this case a 14-18 Volts 2.5-3.5 Ampere. One of the most influential things you need is antenna and coax cable. And finally the transmitter itself. Transmitter is divided into two main parts; the oscillator and the amplifier. The oscillator converts electric sound information into electromagnetic waves. The amplifier gives these waves a bigger amplitude.
Posted on Monday, November 13, 2017 • Category: Power Supplies
A constant current source source can supply a fixed current to a load regardless of input voltage or load change. LM317 / LM350 / LM338 constant current source is one of the simplest design. The LM317 is quite useful as a constant current source, works on a wide input voltage range, from 3V up to 40V. So, here’s the LM317 based constant current source, it’s design and a little about it’s working principle.
Posted on Monday, October 16, 2017 • Category: FM Transmitters
This FM transmitter circuit is a quite fun project for electronics beginners, so here’s a circuit with the 2SC9018 transistor. It uses the 2SC9018 high frequency transistor, based on a different spin of the common base Collpit’s oscillator. The circuit is rather simple, uses only one transistor and few passive components and performs well in terms of frequency stability, almost zero drifting after about 4 hours of continuous operation.
Posted on Monday, August 7, 2017 • Category: FM Transmitters
Here we are presenting a long range FM transmitter that can cover a reasonable distance of 5 kilometers / 3 miles and beyond with a one watt RF power with full circuit details, bill of material and testing procedure. With 12 volt DC it will deliver 1 watt RF power. With Yagi antenna, looking like early days of TV antenna with aluminum pipes at both at transmitter and receiver end looking each other at line of sight distance, the range can be up to 5 km / 3 miles.
Posted on Wednesday, June 21, 2017 • Category: FM Transmitters
This circuit is basically an oscillator which runs at around 100 MHz. The most important parts of the oscillator are the transistor Q1 and the tuned circuit, which comprises the inductor Ll and the variable capacitor CV1. When the battery is first connected, a brief surge of current flows from the collector to the emitter of Q1, causing an oscillating (i.e: alternating) current to flow back and forth between Ll and CV1. An oscillating voltage therefore appears at the junction of Ll and CV1. The frequency of the oscillation depends on the values of Ll and CV1, so that varying the value of CV1 tunes the oscillations to the exact frequency required.
Posted on Wednesday, June 14, 2017 • Category: Arduino
This post aims to be a complete guide for the popular RF 433MHz Transmitter/Receiver modules. I’ll explain how it works, show some features and share an Arduino project example that you can take and apply to your own projects.
Posted on Wednesday, March 22, 2017 • Category: FM Transmitters
The following is a simple yet powerful 4W FM transmitter which is tunable to 88-108MHz frequency. Connect to your ipod/computer, etc. When this was first made, I only had a 2N2219A on hand, which resulted in a lower RF output. I have since swapped out the transistor for a 2N3866 for full 4W output at around 15VDC supply. In order to achieve a high output level, you will need a well tuned antenna, and a large heatsink to dissipate the heat from T2 transistor.
Transmitter was mounted in metal enclosure and works extremely well.
Posted on Wednesday, November 16, 2016 • Category: Test and Measurement
I finally got round to making my capacitor ESR tester this week after finding a nice simple 5 transistor version. Unfortunately, for me, the design was only SMD so, I decided to replicate his schematic in Eagle PCB using a through hole component design. I will not be going into much detail regarding ESR or Equivalent Series Resistance Meters as, there is already plenty of other sources of information on the subject. Yet, every tinkering knows capacitors are guilty of a lot of sins in electronics. Capacitors love to throw red herrings! They can appear physically fine (no bulge), show good capacitance and hide in circuit, standing to attention like the Queens Guards hiding shorts and high resistance under their big hats. This is where the ESR tester can be a saviour, with the ability to test for "out of specification" high resistance, within the capacitor. They can also be used to test "in circuit", without the need to remove every capacitor in the circuit.
Posted on Sunday, October 30, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
The above FM transmitter has RF output power of 300 mW and covers more than one kilometer distance. Frequency adjustment is accomplished with MV2105 varactor diode and R7 10K potentiometer. 2SC2538 is a class C 300mW amplifier.
Posted on Monday, October 24, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
High performance low noise 500mW amplifier / booster for all low power FM transmitters such as BA1404, BH1417, BH1415, 433MHz transmitter modules, etc. The amplifier chip is an integrated circuit containing multiple transistor stages and all other parts conveniently within a single small package. Boosting your FM transmitter has never been easier and the output signal can also directly drive 2n4427 or 2n3866 transistors for 1W or 5W of RF output power.
Posted on Friday, October 21, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
The power amplifier boosts 88-108MHZ 1-2W FM transmitter's power to 15 W. It includes multi-level low pass filter and has a high conversion efficiency with strong Yi-wave suppression. With good antena expected transmission coverage is at least 15Km. It uses high power 175 MHZ 4A 25W 2SC1972 RF transistor that must to be mounted to heatsink for proper heat dissipation.
Posted on Friday, September 30, 2016 • Category: Power Supplies
Solar energy is renewable, free, widely available and clean form of energy. It is considered as a serious source of energy for many years because of the vast amounts of energy that is made freely available, if harnessed by modern technology. Many people are familiar with so-called photovoltaic cells, or solar panels, found on things like spacecraft, rooftops, and handheld calculators. The cells are made of semiconductor materials like those found in computer chips. When sunlight hits the cells, it knocks electrons loose from their atoms. As the electrons flow through the cell, they generate electricity.
In this project, we are building a power bank which harvests energy by using a solar panel. The energy gained by the solar panel is stored in a LiPo battery. Then the battery is used to supply a stable 5V which is used by USB gadgets. The power bank can also be charged by an external 5V source. The best thing for this power bank during day that you don’t need to remember to charge it. It charges itself by using the sunlight and you don’t come up with an empty bank.
Posted on Thursday, June 30, 2016 • Category: Frequency Wave Generators
Function generator with adjustable frequency from 0 Hz to over 400 kHz, adjustable amplitude, DC offset, duty, and of course the function selection – square, triangle, and sine. Generator based on good old ICL8038 integrated chip generator that gives pretty good shaped signals as for amateur purposes. This circuit has been designed a little differently than ICL’s note or other similar circuits are suggesting. I tested a bunch of different configurations with different peripherals and chosen the best – so to get good waveshape at 400kHz. I got rid of some of the elements, I added my own solutions. The two ICL chips that i have can oscillate around up to 420-430kHz, and practically we can get good waveforms up to that frequency.
Posted on Friday, June 24, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
The proposed long range transmitter circuit really is very steady, harmonic free design which you can use with standard fm frequencies between 88 and 108 MHz.
This will likely encompass 5km spectrum (long range). It includes an extremely consistent oscillator for the reason that you employ LM7809 stabilizer that is a 9V stabilized power source for T1 transistor and for frequency realignment that may be reached by means of the 10K linear potentiometer. The output strength of this long range rf transmitter is approximately 1W. Transistor T1 is employed as an oscillator stage to present a small power steady frequency. To fine-tune the freq. apply the 10k linear potentiometer this way: should you moderate, in the direction of ground, the freq. would probably decrease but when you fine-tune it in direction of + it would climb. Essentially the potentiometer is needed just as a flexible power source for the a pair of MV2019 varicap diodes. Both of these diodes function as a changeable capacitor whilst you regulate the pot. By tweaking the diode capacitance the L1 + diodes circuit renders a resonance circuit for T1. Feel free to employ transistors similar to BF199, BF214 however be careful not to use BCs. At this point you don’t receive yet the long range fm wireless transmitter due to the fact that the electric power is fairly reduced, a maximum of 0.5 mW.
Posted on Thursday, June 2, 2016 • Category: Power Supplies
After many years of employing this ugly and clumsy bench power supply, I decided it was time to build something better, smaller and nice looking. It began as a variable power supply based on an LM338 5A voltage regulator and external power adapter. LM338's Data Sheet has several very helpful application notes and circuits. I chose one that illustrated variable output and included protection diodes. Diodes are included to protect the regulator from damage in case the input is accidentally shorted to ground. This is a distinct possibility if using jumpers to attach it to the power supply. Also the output of station supply may be shorted if some other device fails. Without the diodes, if this happens, the capacitors will dump their charge back through the regulator. Since the current spike may be many amps, the regulator may fail. The diodes steer the current around the regulator and into ground, thereby protecting it from damage. With adequate input the LM338 makes a fabulous variable power supply. This small supply is user friendly and fits nicely on my cluttered bench.
Posted on Friday, May 20, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
Pen FM Transmitter bug projects have been very popular. The idea of being able to hide a transmitter in a pen is very appealing. In an effort to reduce the size of this design, we have used surface-mount components. Firstly, the thought of using the coil in the tank circuit for transmitting RF was a little far fetched, but we used it as an example for those who were interested in experimenting with our circuits. Now we have gone back to a conventional antenna, the whip. The whip or straight-line antenna can be coiled, wound longitudinally or folded. The way it is wound makes a big difference to its effectiveness, but when you are limited in space, you have to accept these limitations.
Even though we have used this antenna set up in our previous pen bugs we have considerably improved the circuit to the point were it has low battery consumption, but high RF output. The size of this design has been reduced considerably by using surface-mount components.
Posted on Monday, May 16, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
Three stage FM transmitter with an on board signal booster for increased transmitting range. It broadcasts audio on 76MHz - 110MHz FM frequency via included on board microphone or from MP3 player, Phone, iPod, Computer, Laptop, CD Player, TV, Satellite Receiver via on board 3.5mm connector. It transmit sound with excellent clarity throughout your home, office, yard, camp ground, etc. Transmitter is supplied by 3-12V DC voltage and uses one 2SC9014 and two 2SC9018 low noise RF transistors.
Posted on Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
I found this FM transmitter circuit on the internet, it works very well and it is very simple to build, even for amateurs. I managed to squeeze all the parts on small 1.5 x 2 cm PCB. When using small wire antenna and 3V power the range is 50m. The coil has 10 turns on a 3 mm diameter and is wound with 0.3 mm copper wire. The microphone is an electret type. Transmitting frequency is changed by stretching or compressing the coil. Furthermore, we can change the frequency by changing C2 capacitor (10pF capacitor with a frequency of about 88MHz, with 8.2pF 95Mhz and 6.8pF 104Mhz). Further tuning to the correct frequency is done through the coil. Transmitter can be powered by 3V button battery.
Posted on Sunday, April 3, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
This easy to build transmitter transmits high quality stereo sound from your MP3 player, computer, walkman or discman to any FM radio or car radio. The circuit is designed around the BA1404 single chip FM stereo transmitter from ROHM. The IC requires only a small number of external parts so it is well suited for hobbyist projects. The chip features excellent frequency stability, low power consumption & good channel separation. The transmitting RF frequency can be set by adjusting the coil (Lx). This 2 turn coils is paired with a 39 pF capacitor (Cx) to give a frequency range from 87 MHz - 106 MHz.
Posted on Sunday, March 20, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
This FM VHF transmitter will output approximately 250mW of RF power using a 2N3866 output transistor and can operate between 75MHz and 146MHz. It utilities a variable high gain audio pre-amplifier which can detect voices 40 feet away using an electret microphone. Using a NBFM scanner, ranges over 5KM have been achieved using a 48cm wire antenna. Coils are 22SWG 7mm air core. L1 and L2 should be 6 turns for 75MHz to 85MHz, 4 turns for 85MHz to 100MHz and 3 turns for 100 to 146MHz. For frequencies over 100MHz the Crystal will be higher than 20MHz hence the base emitter capacitor should be 47pF. L3 is a 4.7uH choke. It is ideal to tune up this circuit using a wave detector meter placed a few inches away from the transmitter.
Posted on Tuesday, February 23, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
Have you ever wanted to broadcast your own radio station within your neighborhood? This small and simple 87-108MHz FM transmitter is the toy that geeks have always wanted. This tutorial includes the PCB layout and the schematics. It has a range of up to 1/4 mile or more. It's great for room monitoring, baby listening and nature research.
Posted on Tuesday, February 16, 2016 • Category: Power Supplies
This is a high quality bench power supply with adjustable output voltage from 0 to 30V and adjustable output current from few miliamperes to 4 amperes. Built-in electronic output current limiter that effectively controls the output current makes this power supply indispensable in the experimenters laboratory as it is possible to limit the current to the typical maximum that a circuit under test may require, and power it up then, without any fear that it may be damaged if something goes wrong. There is also a visual indication that the current limiter is in operation so that you can see at a glance that your circuit is exceeding or not its preset limits.
Posted on Wednesday, February 3, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
FM transmitters can be complicated to build, but not this one — this iPod FM transmitter about the easiest you can possibly make. And though the science of radio is well understood, there’s a magical, emotional quality about it that we don’t often stop to appreciate. You will not forget the first time you pick up a transmission broadcast from a device you soldered together, yourself, from a few bits of copper, carbon, plastic, and wire.
Posted on Monday, January 18, 2016 • Category: FM Transmitters
The circuit is a simple 88-108 MHz VHF FM transmitter circuit. It is basically a VHF Colpitts oscillator capable of transmitting sound or music to any standard FM receiver. The circuit is powered by 9V battery which makes it easily portable. It also has a capacitor microphone which picks up very weak sound signals. The output frequency can be easily adjusted by potentiometer thanks to onboard MV2109 varicap diode and the frequency stability is quite good. The range of this transmitter is 100 meters.
Posted on Friday, December 18, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
This simple circuit is based on BA1404 FM Transmitter, works with two AA batteries and can drive a 300W dipole antenna for improved range. There are many applications for an FM transmitter, particularly if it can broadcast in stereo. You can broadcast stereo signals from your CD player or any other source to an FM tuner or radio. The transmitter uses a single IC and a few other components. It broadcasts on the FM band (88-108MHz) so that it can be received by any standard FM tuner or portable radio.
Posted on Thursday, December 3, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
This basic RF oscillator circuit is easy to build and the components are not critical. Most of them can be found in your junk parts box. The circuit operated with 9V DC power supply. The L1 antenna coil can be made by close winding 8 to 10 turns of 22 gauge insulted magnetic wire around 1/4 inch form such as a pencil. You can experiment with the size of the coil and the number of turns to see how it affects the frequency and signal output of the oscillator. You should be able to pick up its signal with standard FM radio receiver. Signal In to any audio player through 0.1uF capacitor.
Posted on Thursday, November 26, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
This 7 Watt FM Transmitter was originally a 200mW unit, without the universal power stage added. Together with the power amp 2SC1971 / MRF237 / NTE342 it then became a 7W unit. I used this transmitter with a half-wave open-end dipole in a vertical position 50 feet above ground. Together with about 70 feet of coax, this transmitter delivered great audio at a distance of 10 miles ... overall distance was 17 miles, but the audio signal was weak. I had no equipment, other than a watt meter to measure it's power and a digital FM tuner with a 5-LED Signal Strength Bargraph display to use as capturing the main oscillating frequency, which was right at 87.5 MHz. This circuit worked well for me, as I had experimented with it for nearly a year. Of course, one would be better off with more equipment than I have had to capture the main oscillating frequency. That was, by far, one of the hardest things to capture. It was thru trial and error, with the FM tuner, in finally finding out how to grab the right frequency. When I finally did get used to find out where my 'main' frequency was, the unit performed extremely well. Like I had said above, right at 10 miles, the unit was at its best giving clear audible audio into the speakers of my car. With the transmitting antenna at 50 feet above ground, I decided to see how well I could receive the transmitter signal from an overpass than is exactly 15 miles from the transmitter. When I got to the top of the overpass in my car, the audio signal came in as 'clear as a bell'. I now understand what is meant when one says FM signal travels best in a line of sight. Well, being on that overpass, if I had a strong telescope with me, I am sure I could see the 50 foot antenna in my oak tree. So with the overpass being right around 50 feet in height also, the transmitter surpassed my judgement call on its signal. I surrender this circuit to anyone who likes to experiment in things like this. Enjoy!
Posted on Friday, October 9, 2015 • Category: FM Radio / Receivers
This is one of my favorite radio builds just because of how simple it is and how well it is able to pick up a lot of FM radio stations. I have browsed the world in search of a one transistor FM receiver. I have seen a couple but they were always attached to some sort of added device, such as another IC or another transistor for amplification in the receiver itself. Through my continued quest of searching for that too good to be true one transistor, I happened to run across a super-regenerative receiver, by Charles Kitchin, famous for his vast knowledge of regenerative designs. I printed out the schematic and made it. It turned out extremely well.
Posted on Friday, September 25, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
This is the most simple and cheap FM transmitter you can ever find. This circuit is really cool. This runs at very low voltage, by a CR2025 3V battery, current consumption is also low.And the total size of this FM transmitter (including battery, excluding antenna) is less than that of a matchbox. The circuit has a central RF oscillator NPN transistor BF494 (substitute: BF199). A coil takes care of the output frequency. It consists of 36SWG wire 2.5 turns only in 5mm diameter ferrite rod. Keep the circuit as small as possible. Try to use no wires in the main functional area (transistor and coil). The input from the audio output of computer / PMP / mobile is given to the biased base of the transistor. The transistor gives a RF humming accordingly to the audio input, and the FM wave is spread by the external antenna. By using a standard TV antenna, the range of this transmitter can go up to 1KM radius, using small (15-20cm) Ariel, it can work up to around 50M range. This circuit is most suitable for miniature FM transmitter for use in computer, mobile etc to send music to home theater system without wires, and in homemade wireless walky-talkies.
Posted on Tuesday, August 25, 2015 • Category: FM Radio / Receivers
This passive airband receiver is basically an amplified "crystal radio" designed to receive nearby aircraft transmissions on 121 - 133 MHz frequency. Useful for listening to the pilot transmissions. The input tuned cct 'L' is a 2 turn loop, with 30mm diameter measured at 0.15uH on my LC Meter which intercepts RF directly as opposed to an LC cct fed with external aerial. Tuning capacitor is a 30pF Philips Beehive trimmer, with a short length of plastic tube glued - as a tuning shaft. Capacitance runs from 28 to 7pF; which by formula gives a frequency range of 77 - 155MHz. Detector uses a biased 1N5711 (or similar) schottky diode with lowest forward-biassed voltage drop. The two 10M resistors bias the detector diode and the op-amp input near mid-rail for better detector efficiency. LM358 dual op-amp draws less than 1 ma so the battery drain is minimal. Insertion of earphones plug completes supply circuit and acts as an on/off switch. 9V battery fits neatly inside a 30mm x 130mm long PVC tube.
Posted on Friday, August 21, 2015 • Category: AM Radio
There are not many AM transmitters that are easier to build than this one because the inductor is not tapped and has a single winding. There is no need to wind the inductor as it is a readily available RF choke. To make the circuit as small as possible, the conventional tuning capacitor has been dispensed with and fixed 220pF capacitors used instead. To tune it to a particular frequency, reduce one or both of the 220pF capacitors to raise the frequency or add capacitance in parallel to lower the frequency. Q1 is biased with a 1MO resistor to give a high input impedance and this allows the use of a crystal ear piece as a low cost microphone.
Posted on Sunday, August 16, 2015 • Category: Amplifiers
This is a second revision of 50W LM3886 power amplifier that is used to power two bookshelf speakers. The sound produced by LM3886 chip is excellent so I decided to make another amplifier with it. The schematic is based on the schematic in the datasheet of the chip with minor changes. I removed the time delay capacitor connected to MUTE pin, because it's better to use separate DC protection schematic which has similar functionality. I made the output inductance L1 by winding 15 turns of enameled wire around the resistor R7. The diameter of the wire must be minimum 0.4mm. The whole was wrapped with heat shrink.
Posted on Thursday, July 2, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
This is the most simple and cheap FM transmitter you can ever find. It's powered by CR2025 3V battery and current consumption is very low. The total size of this FM transmitter is less than that of a matchbox. The circuit has a central RF oscillator NPN transistor BF494. A coil takes care of the output frequency. The coil consists of 36SWG wire 2.5 turns in 5mm diameter ferrite rod. Keep the circuit as small as possible. By using a standard TV antenna, the range of this transmitter can go up to 1KM radius, using small 15-20cm wire, it can work up to around 50M range. This circuit is most suitable for miniature FM transmitter for use in computer, mobile etc to send music to home theater system without wires, and in homemade wireless walky-talkies.
Posted on Sunday, June 28, 2015 • Category: Frequency Wave Generators
When i was using operational amplifiers at school lab i wanted a function generator at home to play with and work on circuits with Op Amps for better understanding. So i found on the internet a free function generator circuit which uses the IC XR-2206, i printed the PCB with my UV exposure box, i bought an enclosure box, i put everything inside and here is the result. The function generator can generate Square, TTL, Sine and Triangle waveforms from 1Hz to 1Mhz with Voltage regulation to Square Sine and Triangle waveforms.
Posted on Thursday, May 28, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
This simple transmitter allows you to broadcast on FM radio band 87.5 - 108 MHz. It consists of a simple oscillator with silicon planar RF PNP transistor. Directly to the oscillator an antenna is connected. Due to the large amplitude of RF voltage is sufficient antenna length of about 5-10 cm. I used insulated 7cm long copper wire 1mm diameter. I eliminated the tuning capacitor, which is usual for most bugs and miniature transmitters, because this greatly complicates the tuning. From my own experience I know that if you get closer to such capacitor, the operating frequency is changed. That's why I chose to use the voltage tuning using the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). Instead of tuning capacitor the varicap (capacitance diode) is used, which changes its capacity by changing the reverse DC voltage. We can tune the operating frequency by changing the DC voltage using the trimmer P1. Varicap also provides frequency modulation.
Posted on Sunday, May 24, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
This simple 400mW transmitter broadcasts audio on 87.5 - 108 MHz FM radio band. With good dipole antenna transmission range up to 4km is possible. Frequency is selected by adjusting R1 potentiometer. Transmitter should be powered by regulated 12-14V power supply with at least 100mA current rating.
Posted on Thursday, April 23, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
FM transmitters can be complicated to build, but not this one it’s about the easiest you can possibly make. And though the science of radio is well understood, there’s a magical, emotional quality about it that we don’t often stop to appreciate. You will not forget the first time you pick up a transmission broadcast from a device you soldered together, yourself, from a few bits of copper, carbon, plastic, and wire.
Posted on Thursday, March 12, 2015 • Category: FM Transmitters
This is a small stereo FM transmitter. Output can be tuned from 88 to 108Mhz and the transmitter can be battery powered or be used with presented low voltage power supply. This circuit is based on the Rhom BA1404 datasheet. The maximum voltage should not exceed 3V. The IC can be driven from a 7805 Regulator with a couple of 1N4001 diodes to reduce the supply voltage to about 2.8 Volts. RF output power is typically 500mW but range depends upon antenna coupling and efficiency, environment and size of antenna. A small telescopic whip has an expected range of at leaset 100 metres or more.
Posted on Monday, March 2, 2015 • Category: Arduino
Arduino Prototype is a spectacular development board fully compatible with Arduino Pro. It's breadboard compatible so it can be plugged into a breadboard for quick prototyping, and it has VCC & GND power pins available on both sides of PCB. It's small, power efficient, yet customizable through onboard 2 x 7 perfboard that can be used for connecting various sensors and connectors. Arduino Prototype uses all standard through-hole components for easy construction, two of which are hidden underneath IC socket. Board features 28-PIN DIP IC socket, user replaceable ATmega328 microcontroller flashed with Arduino bootloader, 16MHz crystal resonator and a reset switch. It has 14 digital input/output pins (0-13) of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs and 6 analog inputs (A0-A5). Arduino sketches are uploaded through any USB-Serial adapter connected to 6-PIN ICSP female header. Board is supplied by 2-5V voltage and may be powered by a battery such as Lithium Ion cell, two AA cells, external power supply or USB power adapter.
Posted on Tuesday, December 30, 2014 • Category: FM Transmitters
Here is a simple 76-110MHz FM transmitter that can transmit your voice or audio over an ordinary FM radio within the FM broadcast band. It can transmit both voice using microphone and music from any music player. Frequency is changed by adjusting 5.5 turn inductor coil. Transmitter is powered by 9V battery or 3V-9V power adapter. Transmission range is 100 meters but can be increased with better antenna or RF amplifier.
Posted on Wednesday, December 10, 2014 • Category: FM Transmitters
FM transmitters can be complicated to build, but not this one. It’s about the easiest you can possibly make. And though the science of radio is well understood, there’s a magical, emotional quality about it that we don’t often stop to appreciate. You will not forget the first time you pick up a transmission broadcast from a device you soldered together, yourself, from a few bits of copper, carbon, plastic, and wire.
Posted on Saturday, October 25, 2014 • Category: Stepper Motors
H-bridge is frequently used to control DC motors and stepper motors. When controlling a bipolar stepper motor, two full H-bridges are needed. There are many H-bridge ICs (like L298, MPC17529 and SN754410 which is a quad half H-bridge) for just that purpose. But if you are on a budget, you may want to consider building a dual H-bridge yourself. The following schematic shows a simple dual H-bridge using eight general purpose transistors (2N3904 and 2N3906). Given the maximum current of roughly 200mA, this circuit can be used to drive a small bipolar stepper motor operating between 5V and 12V, such as the stepper motors found in most floppy drives and CD / DVD drives.
Posted on Tuesday, August 26, 2014 • Category: FM Transmitters
Presented FM transmitter is built around low power PLL transmitter and amplifier that boosts its signal all the way up to 6 Watts. The signal is amplified by three RF stages of amplification. In the first and second stages of the transmitter one of the best driver transistors were used 2SC2053. You can use the other transistors but only up to 500mW of power. In the third stage 2SC1971 RF transistor was used to achieve 6W of power. For making any RF transmitter circuit at least two meters are necessary, one is frequency counter and the other is RF field strength meter for which the schematic is provided.
Posted on Friday, August 22, 2014 • Category: Amplifiers
This is battery powered amplifier based on LM386 chip and has an input buffer that is feeding the inverting input. The input buffer helps to retain treble details going into the LM386 chip. It is powered from a single 9V battery.
Posted on Sunday, August 17, 2014 • Category: Miscellaneous
This is a low voltage 12V fluorescent inverter for powering two 20W or single 40W fluorescent tube. It's a circuit you can put together from junk box components and is a very simple to build. The transformer is hand-wound on a ferrite rod from an old transistor radio and the winding wire can be salvaged from an old transformer. The cost of powering the circuit is about 22 watts and this will produce the same light output as 60 watt incandescent light bulb.
Posted on Sunday, August 3, 2014 • Category: FM Transmitters
The figure shows a schematic of an easy to build FM transmitter circuit. Mostly all FM transmitter circuits you will find online or in books require some kind of hand build inductor/coil and after building the transmitter you have to adjust that coil and trimmer capacitor a little to adjust the transmitter to transmit on your desired frequency.
If you are looking for an easy or simple FM transmitter circuit in which you don't have to make a coil with your hand then the circuit given here is ideal for you. The circuit is using a ready made 1uH inductor which can be purchased from an electronic components store. These inductors are mostly look like resistors. The circuit also does not require a trimmer capacitor, because we have used a fixed value of 39pF capacitor in the place of trimmer capacitor. We have already calculated and used the values of coil and capacitors of oscillator to broadcast on FM band, so you don't have to do any further adjustments and tuning after building the circuit. The circuit can be operated with 9 to 12 volt DC. For antenna use a 12 inch wire or for maximum range use a 30 inch wire and make it vertical.
Posted on Monday, July 28, 2014 • Category: Test and Measurement
Curious C-Beeper is a fun to build little probe that can be used to quickly detect the capacity of capacitors in pF nF range, test their stability with temperature changes, find broken wires, locate wires, trace wires on PCBs, and to locate live wires behind the walls without touching them. The circuit uses three transistors to make a most unusual capacitance beeper probe. When a capacitor is touched to the probe, the probe beeps at a frequency that varies with capacitance. The frequency change is so steep with capacitance that tiny capacitors may be precisely matched or an exact fixed value may be selected to replace a trimmer in a prototype. If the user has reasonably moist skin, simply holding one lead of the capacitor to be tested while touching the other lead to the probe is all that is necessary. The user's body forms the other connection through the beeper's metal case. When the beeper is properly adjusted it draws only 10 uA with nothing touching the probe - no power switch is required. This design is optimized for capacitors less than about 0.1 uF (100 nF). Large capacitors give a low frequency "clicking" sound and small capacitors sound a tone that increases as the capacitance decreases. Many decades of frequency change occur over the beeper's range giving even the more tone-deaf among us sufficient change to discern slight differences in capacitance. The entire device is powered by two CR2032 lithium cells that fit into TicTac box. The use of power switch is unnecessary since the circuit consumes almost no power when not being used.
Posted on Thursday, July 24, 2014 • Category: Miscellaneous
This circuit automatically turns on the light through a relay when daylight intensity falls below a preset level on the Light Dependent Resistor (LDR).
Posted on Tuesday, July 1, 2014 • Category: Amplifiers
It's always handy to have a little amp kicking around to trace audio signals, test mics, CD tape and TV audio outputs. You know, something that doesn't weigh a lot and isn't clumsy. There are tons of uses for this little circuit.
There are a couple of versions of this amplifier chip. Both are 8 pin DIP packages and the difference between the two are apparent by their part numbers. Either are suited for this circuit provided the supply voltage does not exceed the recommended 5 to 12 volt DC range. Power output can range from about 325 mW to about 750 mW within this supply range when using an 8 ohm speaker. Power it with batteries or a small DC supply...why not solar cells or a little windmill generator?
Posted on Friday, June 27, 2014 • Category: FM Transmitters
Here's how to build your own mini FM transmitter. It transmits FM waves so you could easily receive the signal